Guidance to Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM)

  1. Introduction to vehicle borne threats

The threats range from vandalism to sophisticated or aggressive attack by determined criminals or terrorists.

  • vehicles offer a convenient method to deliver a bomb, known as a vehicle borne improvised explosive device (VBIED)
  • a vehicle can also be used as a weapon to injure and kill people, or ram and damage infrastructure


The effects from a VBIED include the blast, fireball, primary & secondary fragmentation and ground shock. Blast stand-off (the distance between the explosive and the asset) is the single most important factor in determining the extent of damage that can be caused. This is site specific; it is important to maximise the blast stand-off distance. Damage to the asset is reduced in proportion to the distance from the explosion.

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Source: GOV.UK